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2005 Columns
Quarter 1: January thru March ~ Columns #1 - #6

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March 23, 2005 Column #6: Another ‘plan’ to save Black youths

“Through My Eyes, the Minneapolis Story Continues...”
A weekly column by Ron Edwards featured in the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder

A plan to “save” Black youths with 300 to 500 summer jobs was announced last Wednesday, March 16, at a State Capital press conference. The overall purpose was to talk about public safety and new crime-fighting money.

On Thursday, March 17, the Minneapolis Star Tribune reported on an email from African American police Sergeant Robert Berry about the crime scene's contamination. There have been editorials and at least 10 feature stories in the Star Tribune since that tragic afternoon of March 4, 2005. But what is troubling to this corner is that these events have become a political three-ring circus, with folks in one ring seeing some money to be made, while others in another ring see political leverage to be gained. The DFL has rigged the city's political contest to eliminate 50 percent of the city council's African Americans by gerrymandering the contest such that it pits the only two African American incumbents, Natalie Johnson Lee and Don Samuels, against each other.

And in the center ring we have Boss Man himself prancing about, expecting the paying African American patrons to get all warm and mushy because Boss Man is allegedly going to give our youths 300 to 500 summer jobs. My gawd, how often have we heard that song? They get the headlines. Our youth get a number that doesn't come close to the number promised.

In the meantime, as the Whites continue their circus show, we find no plan to include in any of the rings acts that will do anything to preserve the lives and the futures of the children of our African American communities. We'll continue to monitor city hall's minstrel show.

And about those “plans” to save our youth: Nothing has changed since Nellie Stone Johnson's prescient insight—no education, no jobs, no housing. When the legislature and city councils address our solutions listed in our book [Chapter 17] and on our website [Solution Paper #22, “7 Themes/Prblems/Solutions,” and Solution Paper #23, “The Blocks to Construct a Minneapolis Table for All To Sit at Together,” we’ll know they want a community of citizens and not just a grandstand of passive patrons as they throw us crumbs in the hopes we'll stay in “our place.”

More troubling is that our own Black organizations don't lobby to have these solutions considered. Enacting them will solve the problems of education, jobs, housing, violence and public safety.

Mike, say it isn't so. Wow. Scalping for years.
Have you noticed the silence of the White fourth estate on Mike Tice's confession that one of the examples he has set has been to break NFL rules by scalping ‘05 tickets of his about-to-be-sold Minnesota Vikings football team? This is like watching parallel universes.

Check these headlines. March 9: “Tice denies scalping Super Bowl tickets.” March 10: “Tice is confident he'll be cleared.” March 11: “Tice says he scalped ‘05 tickets.” So he lies and denies; then, when he's exposed and fesses up, the ***Strib*** goes silent. Then we turn to a parallel universe on those same dates. March 9: “Vikings sale not likely this month.” March 10: “Fowler bid discussed, but action not taken.” March 11: “Fowler's bid for Vikings moves slowly toward approval.”

We have had all kinds of innuendo about Reggie's dealings. Mike is actually guilty and nary a word. So let's ask the questions the Strib doesn't. Hey, Mike: Who is your ticket broker? How much did you really sell them for, and how much did you really get for them? Have you notified the IRS of your new “income”? And hey, Red: What disciplinary action will you take, or is lying an “aw shucks” thing of White boys being White boys?

Heck, this thing has so disappeared from the radar screen that, if we wait long enough, they can pretend it didn't happen. But we will remember. It makes us wonder what the reaction would have been had this been a Black coach, or, horror of horrors, Dennis Green. I guess Mike didn't use his pencil to take notes when Coach Green talked about integrity.

Steve, don't worry, we haven't forgotten you. Many have told me they are waiting for my response to the letter written to this paper two weeks ago on our column of a month ago about violence in the Minneapolis public schools.

Some within the school administration think we were put in our place. How? The violence happened. The threats were made. The truth will come out in court. For the school's, sake I hope they were not taped when they were threatening about careers and futures with the Minneapolis Public Schools. We look forward to following this circus, too, as lawsuits are prepared and the court sessions begin. Best of luck, 807.

Posted 3-23-05

March 9, 2005 Column #5: Sale of the Vikings: the race card in play

“Through My Eyes, the Minneapolis Story Continues...”
A weekly column by Ron Edwards featured in the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder

With the announcement of the trade of Randy Moss to the Oakland Raiders, it is quite clear that forces are at work that are giving no consideration to Reggie Fowler.

I mean, come on. Do you really believe Reggie was considered or consulted before this trade? And some of the suspicion that Reggie is being sucker-punched was confirmed in the wave of articles in the last Thursday’s Star Tribune (March 3). One was headlined “Silent Partners’ Deep Pockets.” The Strib assigned five writers to this article, four of them identified under the byline. Another, on p. A9, by Jay Weiner talks about an old Fowler friend, Black business executive Jim Stapleton, former Sr. VP with the Detroit Tigers. Now, the story looked pretty good, as it talked about two old acquaintances that were teaming up to make history. But then, at the very end of the story, the knife across the throat comes into play when the Star Tribune points out that Stapleton was involved in a $185,000 illegal fee to broker a sale between a technology company and the Detroit Public Schools. Although the paper quotes Stapleton as denying any wrongdoing, the paper goes on to report that in June 2004 he settled the matter in U.S. bankruptcy court for $50,000.

The lead story about Fowler’s partners played the religion card (the race card having already been played). Note how it makes a point to state that one of the investors supports many Jewish causes. Naturally. All three of Fowler’s partners are Jewish.

Many of us in this city remember how vicious and anti-Semitic it became in the final days of the beloved Max Winter, the Jewish man who brought the Vikings to Minnesota. And when that ugly battle to see who would take control of the Minnesota Vikings was joined, a level of anti-Semitism not seen in this city since the 1930s reared its ugly head.

At some point, someone in this once-great city is going to have to say enough is enough. With America’s sons and daughters dying in foreign wars irrespective of race, creed, religion or national origin, how is it that we have a war here in Minnesota over a football team that could very well put that conflict to journalistic shame? Shame on the Fourth Estate.

Best wishes, Reggie

We are amazed at the “waves” of Star Tribune stories about Reggie’s purchase of the team from Red. First the attempt to abort the sale, then stories of the announcement making Reggie look silly, then the nonsensical resume flap, then total silence, then the March 3 wave. We submitted our copy for this issue Thursday night, March 3. By the time this paper is published on the ninth, you will have been treated to the wave of Sunday, March 6, in a last-ditch effort to discredit Reggie. For an update, see our long and detailed post of 2-28-05: “Who’s Dream: All or some? Reggie Fowler is qualified to be the Minnesota Vikings Owner”, our “Solutions Paper #25”, and subsequent Blog (web log) entries.

We want Reggie to succeed. As we posted those, we also submitted them to Reggie’s team. Our fear now is that they are playing into the hands of locals who don’t want a Black owner or locals giving them bad advice.

The NFL would like to approve Reggie, but he and his team are making it harder and harder for the NFL to do so. Nonetheless, we wish them continued good fortune with their purchase. We hope he proves us wrong and gets approved.

Continued violence in the halls of education

Last Wednesday’s edition of the Star Tribune (March 2) was clearly a case of it once again playing catch-up with this column. We had reported the previous week on the violence in the Minneapolis Public Schools, the assault on administrators, the concern within the Hispanic community, the concern within the Black community, and the effort by both communities to be heard.

At that time they were heard only by this columnist in this newspaper. We welcome the Strib catching up, but wonder why they purposefully ignore such stories until called out.

Contrary to the statement attributed in the March 2 article in the Star Tribune, our communities are not a bunch of hypocrites. The hypocrites are those within the school district who would mislead the general public, saying they had no idea that these incidents were taking place. Hypocrisy brings with it dishonesty, and that dishonesty fosters more hypocrisy. We hope the meeting that is supposed to be held on this issue comes off. Note that the meeting has been pushed back from March 10 to March 15. We are urge the Hispanic community to move forward with the federal action they have under consideration. Stay tuned.

Posted 3-9-05

February 24, 2005 Column #4: (1) Don’t ask me about safety in the Minneapolis Public Schools, (2) Black men need not apply for membership in the NFL? A "teachable" moment for white America

“Through My Eyes, the Minneapolis Story Continues...”
A weekly column by Ron Edwards featured in the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder

How would you like to be a teacher assaulted by students, injured, and hospitalized, and have the fact erased? This “Erasure” happened to an African American Vice Principal at Franklin Middle School. Over two weeks ago. Assaulted by students, injured, hospitalized. As of 2-17-05, no incident report had been filed by the Minneapolis Park Police (which has jurisdiction). This column has confirmed the hospitalization. A citation/ticket was issued to the perpetrator. The assault and beating of the Black vice principal was described while the Park Board liaison police officer was present in the room. So where is the official written report? And why is the incident denied and erased?

The vice principal has been told that the school district and the park police now insist no assault took place, so that if she insists upon pursuing this matter her career and job security are at risk. So the schools really can’t teach math (assault + injury + hospitalization + report + citation = 0). More disturbing: the Minneapolis Star Tribune won’t report this story. This column has acquired violence incident figures from the Hennepin County Attorney’s office. Schools claims to be safe but incidents of crimes in schools are at a record level, with 1,177 incidents in 2003-2004, with this year on pace to exceed 1,177. Denial. Erasure. Cover-up.

It gets worse. Hispanic parents protesting the increase in violence against their children have also been told that there is no problem in the schools. Denial. Erasure. Cover up. Why? Is it any wonder that so many educators live in fear of the environment of terror in the Minneapolis Public Schools? What can be done? If you are concerned and have any ideas, let me know, and I’ll pass them on.

Black men need not apply for membership in the NFL

The Minneapolis Star Tribune, WCCO, other local networks, the NY Times, USA Today, etc., show us a new kind of lunch counter refusal. In the chapters of our book, we pulled “the covers off and exposed” racism as we fought for a Minneapolis “table for everyone.” Don’t be fooled by the latest laughing about Reggie Fowler’s resume. It is part of the orchestrated turn down. Resumes have different purposes – job hunting (detailed specifics), background for clients and customers (generalizations) and the public servant or public view piece (to show appropriateness). Each are different. There is no O’Leary moment here.

But even before that came to light, it was already clear to us that (1) Red was using Reggie to set a floor for his price, (2) Anoka County was crying wolf to keep from paying a stadium tax while (3) making sure people realize there was a need for the team and stadium in Minnesota after all, to help them fulfill their development dream, (4) Glen Taylor was preparing to “catch” the team and fulfill his long held dream, (5) the Governor was getting more support for his Minneapolis to St. Cloud corridor dream, while (6) the legislature will use the voters’ dream that a Black guy didn’t get the Vikings to (7) cause a Minnesota swoon for the team going to Taylor, so the legislators will (8) be able to fulfill their dream of creating a stadium tax and not lose an election for doing so, and (9) the NFL can say they tried.

Those of us who have had to deal with the very low, cement (not glass) inner city ceiling for Blacks caused by 250 years of slavery, 90 years of jim crow, and nearly 50 years of kerner commissioned inner city apartheid policies know color IS playing a big part in this. Have you noticed that we in this column and in this paper are the only media in America on record openly supporting this sale to this prospective first Black owner, unqualifiedly, with no innuendos?

Think of it: until now: no NFL Black owners. Over 70% black players. Only 1% black head coaches (and that is a recent increase). Only a ruckus forced the Rooney Rule (that Blacks have to be interviewed for head coach too). And yet at the Super Bowl this year NFL Commissioner Tagliabue, blaming the universities, said there is no depth in the Black executive ranks of the NFL. So no Rooney Rule for front offices. In other words, they not only don’t have to hire Black executives, they don’t even have to interview them. In other words, Blacks need not apply.

Becoming the first Black owner in the NFL is like riding a huge, historic, tectonic plate moving earthquake inducing Tsunami crashing over the last great White-only seawall barrier.

If ever there was a teachable moment for White America, this is it. This could have been done so smoothly and wonderfully that people would have been clamoring for this sale to go through, shouting, “it’s about time”. Instead, the Fowler group seems to have hired Minneapolis firms that join in the clamor for putting up the “Blacks need not apply” signs.

Posted 2-24-05, 4:55 pm (submitted to MSP 2-18-05)

February 10, 2005 Column #3: New Enemy, Same Plan, New War?

“Through My Eyes, the Minneapolis Story Continues...”
A weekly column by Ron Edwards featured in the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder

We all watched the President’s State of the Union Speech (SOTUS) with great interest. He was a man in command. And certainly, by the grumble of boos expressed by some democrats regarding Iraq and Social Security, he was also a man opposed. He returned the favor periodically with his facial expressions suggesting annoyance and displeasure.

But for this columnist, of greater concern was the report widely circulated prior to Wednesday’s SOTUS, on January 31st and February 1st and 2nd, that the United States government had determined that a significant amount of Libyan uranium, weapons grade in design, had come from North Korea. Conservative commentators then said this was the smoking gun that justified a preemptive strike against North Korea. Does it? We need dialogue. But both of our political parties so vilify each other that each side refrains from stating what they are thinking because of the swarm than will surround them, as each sees the other not as an opposition that wants to discuss but an opposition that wants to defeat.

Remember Vice President Cheney’s well designed response in an interview indicating that the United States would not be able to keep Israel back from preemptively striking Iran (which Europeans may secretly want). The thoughts that ran through my mind were the following: More wars? More casualties? More of our sons and daughters maimed and wounded? More stirring of the international community? Would this make us crusaders out to save the unfree, undemocratic world without thought of consequence? Is there another way to free enslaved people as many are, from our standards, in the Middle East? We need to discuss this as a nation if we are to maintain a high moral standard and be the model we want others to follow to institute peaceful change and become democratic.

Are polls correct that the President has a mandate? Is preemption the leading card to play in foreign policy? Will Condoleezza Rice be able to bring about an international consensus/action regarding Syria, Egypt, Iran, and North Korea such that needed change can be made without war? How do we avoid war while standing up for and helping in the liberation of oppressed peoples? In our web log 2005#6 of January 29, we asked two questions: “Does the President speak for the inner city too?” and Who does the DFL speak for?”

Is the President trying to draw our attention away from the domestic landscape, such as social security, jobs and a serious and sincere revitalization of the inner cities of color in America? He should tell us. Actions speak louder than words. I need to see corresponding action. We know that the survival of Black America depends on our being vigilant. Where is the vigilance in Minneapolis? Why is so little going on during February, Black History month? Do we no longer pay attention to and celebrate the life and teachings of Martin Luther King, Jr.? Some men seem terrified. Of what? Some men seem lazy and lost? Why? What happened to Black manhood? In our column of December 16, 2004 (2004/#26), we asked if we were looking at Black men as an “Endangered Species” and wondered about “The Future of Black Men in Minneapolis,” as, in the wake of the killing of the young boy, we asked, “where are our so-called Black leaders? No civil rights organization spoke up or cried out or seemed to care.”

In our October 7, 2004 column (2004/#20), we noted that despite the fact that the White “Plantation mentality denies Blacks $15 million,” there was no protest, only “silence” except for this column. Are the men of Minneapolis no longer man-like? Why didn’t any of the organizations cut off stand up for that $15 million? Why be beaten and bowed? Are they waiting for Boss to hand them something? We saw real Black men in my book in Interlude 9 (the Pullman Porters), Interlude 11 (Adam Clayton Powell), and Interlude 13 (the Army veterans prepared to fight the Tulsa Race Riots Against Blacks). What is happening to us in Minneapolis that we can’t stand up for ourselves? Each will have to look into their own heart and soul. Will we be vigilant or just try to get by?

In 1905, in Buffalo, NY, a predecessor organization to the NAACP was formed from The Niagra Movement that opposed Booker T. Washington’s accommodation policies because White America incorrectly interpreted it as meaning they could keep the status quo. The Niagra Movement said, “We want full manhood suffrage and we want it now. … We are men! We want to be treated as men. We will win.” Is it time for another organization to in turn supplant the NAACP, one that can stand up, man-like?

Hey Emmitt Smith: even though you say in the 2-3-05 Dallas Morning News and our Star Tribune that you are not involved with the Fowler group’s attempt to buy the Vikings, know this: if its not true, go ahead and think about it; join their ownership team. To us in Purple country, you will always be a star that is Welcome!

Posted 2-11-05, 11:50 p.m. Submitted to MSP 2-4-05

January 26, 2005 Column #2: I Told You So. Now Let’s Save the Vikings!

“Through My Eyes, the Minneapolis Story Continues...”
A weekly column by Ron Edwards featured in the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder

[Ed note: the “Roll Call” of those supporting The Plan to have the Vikings leave is appended to this web version of this column.]

The Minneapolis Story, Through My Eyes was published in October 2000. Chapter 15 was devoted to the Vikings: “Say goodbye, they are leaving, that is the plan” (to sell to an outsider, to move the team or sell to some one who will). I write this week to again expose the plan and to expose the latest hunt for a new Great White Hope.

On public TV last week, Ken Burns captured the seething racism of the early 20th century and the furious search for a “Great White Hope” to beat Jack Johnson, the first Black heavyweight champion of the world. Sid Hartman has anointed T-Wolves owner Glenn Taylor as the Great White Hope to prevent Black entrepreneur Reggie Fowler from becoming the Black owner of our beloved Nordic Vikings. Sid's column headline last Thursday screamed with joy: FOWLER DOESN'T HAVE CAPITAL TO BUY VIKINGS.

Sid then writes, “There isn't any doubt that the league will do all it can to make sure Taylor owns the team, if there is going to be a change in ownership.” I understand Sid’s White supremacy (we're 90 percent White here). But why the NFL's, when over half their players are Black? This is just a "block the Black" ploy: if Glenn really wanted the team, he would have bought it already.

Solution: Allow Mr. Fowler to follow Red into the ownership Red Zone the same way Red and the former owners did. Have the NFL loan Mr. Fowler the money, as was the case with Red (and the owners before him took out loans too, making their payments from Vikings revenue). To beat homeboy Roger Hedrick’s bid, the NFL loaned Red $100 million to out-bid Roger (see San Antonio Express-News, August 8, 2002) and then would not let Roger counter.

The article noted the “complex hedge transaction.” Why isn't Mr. Fowler being accorded the same courtesy of the same financial wizardry? Isn't the real price for the team $455 million (the $600 million Red wants minus the $145 million in debt carried forward), and arrange to pay that amount once a new stadium is built? Is it because Mr. Fowler wants to keep the team in Minneapolis and not move it?

As chairman of the Sports Facility Commission (which runs the Metrodome), Henry Savakoul unleashed in October 1988 “The Move Plan with his “chilling” speech, “The Viability of Four Major Sports Teams in Minnesota,” saying corporate Minnesota saw only three teams as viable. They didn't want to buy four sets of suites (NFL, MLB, NBA, NHL), so one pro team had to go—the Vikings.

The Minneapolis Star Tribune reporter Jay Weiner echoed this in his 2000 book Stadium Games: 50 Years of Big League Greed and Bush League Boondoggles (University of Minnesota Press, 2000).

Now how rhapsodic Jay Weiner waxes rhapsodically regarding the Vikes leaving for L.A., as he doesin his July 20, 2003 article. Killer quote: “Done right, with a new stadium in the proper location—even a stadium with zero public funding—an NFL franchise…has the chance to be a gold mine for its owner” [the key being a NEW stadium].

In The Minneapolis Story, Through My Eyes, we talked about our vision vs. “The Plan” in terms ofthe disastrous loss of the Northstars Hockey team and how the Twin Cities could build three stadiums (Vikings, Twins, Gophers) or build one each for the Vikes and Gophers and remodel the dome for the Twins.

Last week, Jay Weiner echoed us (Star Tribune, January 19, 2005, with his Stadium Solutions: A Potential Timeline for building three new stadiums. It reads just like our book, where we pointed out that all three could be built without new taxes. Imitation is a form of flattery. (Jay, Sid, Doug, TJ, and various editors were all given copies of our book in 2002.)

In 2000, my publisher sent a package to the teams, the governor, and key legislators regarding how to construct three stadiums without having to raise new taxes, and posted it on his website,, which also lists the names of the recipients he sent it to. No one called him.

The $1 billion the city has wasted just in housing planning (my book, Chapter 8, p. 131) would have paid for three stadiums. Whereas Minneapolis was once a city of vision, now it is a city where the offspring of the wealthy founders are weak, lacking vision, believing they deserve being born rich. With such great blessings, they should be marching arm in arm to city hall to proclaim they will invest in building the stadiums, finance them, and get their money back running them as businesses rather than as tax-supported welfare programs.

It is time for the pampered offspring of Minnesota's wealthy founders to step up to the plate and show their appreciation for not being born in the ‘hood.

Thanks to you who express appreciation for our being the best column after column, better than the Strib and saying our journalism is as worthy as the reporting on Watergate and the Pentagon Papers. Thank you. We know how to sort out hard information and facts from soft information, rumor, envy and wishful thinking.

You can bet your Vikings that we would like the Strib to acknowledge just once that we know what we are talking about. The Minneapolis Story, Through My Eyes continues to be as up-to-date as the date it was published. Is this why the Strib still refuses to acknowledge it or review it?

Posted 1-29-05, 2:10 p.m., CST. Submitted to MSR 1-21-05

January 12, 2005 Column #1: Plantation University: When Can Their Words be Trusted?

“Through My Eyes, the Minneapolis Story Continues...”
A weekly column by Ron Edwards featured in the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder

A little over a month ago, the ***Minneapolis Star Tribune’s*** Dennis Bracken wrote an interesting story about the student-athlete graduation rates of the University of Minnesota and in the Big 10 (see our column of December 16, 2004, on "The U of M plantation").

The statistics were disappointing; graduation rates were at the bottom, and graduation rates for African American student-athletes even worse. Two separate entities were looking at this issue, the NCAA and a research group at Central Florida University.

With the exception of Charles Hallman, sports columnist for this newspaper, and yours truly, no one has uttered a word of concern. We expected, or at least we hoped, that the president of the University and the chairman of the Board of Regents would at least make the disaster of Black athletes an item for public discussion.

Unfortunately, that has not yet happened. And why am I not surprised? The January 4 edition of the ***Star Tribune*** ran the interesting story “Mason fires two assistant coaches” (Richard Wilson, the wide receivers coach, and Tom Sims, the defensive line coach). This was somewhat shocking, as less than a week earlier Head Coach Mason had said he intended to retain his entire coaching staff. Obviously, that was not the truth.

But what was even more troubling was that Wilson and Sims were two of the three African American coaches on Mason’s staff. When asked about the perception of these firings, Athletic Director Joe Maturi expressed total indifference to the reduction of African American participation at the coaching level and, of course, did not even attempt to address the inconsistency with truth in the case of Coach Mason.

Now, here is the observation from this corner. We already know that we have a coach, Mason, who is at best indifferent to the fact that, for whatever reasons, his African American student athletes are not attaining their degrees. It is quite clear that all Mason and Maturi are concerned about is that the African American student athletes perform on the field of competition while he, Coach Mason, draws his salary and bonuses. Meanwhile, some students leave the university with nothing more that what they came there with.

A degree should not be an option! African American parents expect a White coach coming into their living room, asking them to entrust the future of their son or daughter into their hands, to do what is best for the future of that student athlete—to see that he or she graduates.

It is clear that Coach Mason and the University of Minnesota have broken the most important rule of trust in recruiting the African American student athlete. They have done as Mastuh has always done by lying about their sincere concern for the future of the students with whom they have been entrusted. As I wrote in my book, “The University continues to accept Blacks for what they can do for them in athletics but not as people.”

Now, with the exception of Charles Hallman of this newspaper, I don’t think graduation rates or the fates of Black assistant coaches and future coaches at the university and related issues will come up for discussion. The institution we call the University of Minnesota works like the old plantation, and that is to bring them in, work them to death, cast them out, and hope that they go away and die.

On the other side of the plantation

By the time this column appears, the results of the game in Green Bay will be history. But there is something peculiar about the Minnesota Vikings, and that is the same continuous pattern of collapse for the past two years.

Sometimes a team falls apart when they lose respect for the head man (and all NFL teams have two heads, those of the owner and the coach). And sometimes head men lose that confidence by not treating their players of color like men.

So what is this about? It is to discourse with Vikings fans and cause them not to care. It sure seems that way from the front-page story in the January 6 ***Star Tribune***. They certainly don't sound like happy fans.

Is this Red’s way of getting people not to care when the team is moved, or sold and then moved? Look forward to the rest of the year.

Ron hosts “Black Focus” on Channel 17, MTN-TV, Sundays, 5-6 pm. Formerly head of the Minneapolis Civil Rights Commission and the Urban League, he continues his “watchdog” role for Minneapolis. Order his book, hear his voice, read his solution papers, and read his between columns “web log” at

Permission is granted to reproduce The Minneapolis Story columns, blog entires and solution papers. Please cite the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder and for the columns. Please cite for blog entries and solution papers.

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